When people research armies even in detail most focus on the actual fighting men. Most attention is generally focussed on the actual ability of the officers, infantry men, engagements and whether the outcome is victory or defeat. Campaign battle fields are simply flagged as places and dates. Attention is rarely paid as to how the armies got from place to place or what they did in the long periods of inactivity. Logistics come to mind. This is were quartermasters, waggoners and associated men not generally engaged in active combat need recognition. They generally receive little. Do not armies march on their stomachs?. How many of us know or have read about the men who fed the troops?. Would regimental butchers be important. Obviously. This was not an era where food especially meat products could be carried in quantity or sourced locally. In some instances and where practical some stock could be taken along "on the hoof" if distances not too great. This was the decision of the regimental quartermasters in most cases There had to be a butcher or butchers within the regiment. Edward Lawrence was one such man. His life was interesting and the part he played very important. Let us look at his life as a butcher while a member of the 71st Pa and 69th Pa infantry.
Edward Lawrence (Lorenz) was from Pennsylvanian German stock who came to America pre the Revolutionary war and settled in Pennsylvania. Edward was born the sixth child of the eleven born to Michael Lawrence and Catharine Sweitzer. He was born as far as can be determined in 1830.
Not a lot is known of his early life but we know his father was a butcher and Edward and his four brothers followed this trade. His brothers were beef butchers but family history suggest Edward was primarily a mutton butcher about the time of the Civil War but was an experienced butcher in all livestock inluding beef and pork. He even owned his own sheep at one time.
By 1855 Edward aged about 25 married. He married Mary Ann Etley some seven years his junior and the daughter of another butcher William Etley and Mary Cubbler. They married Oct. 8th 1855 in the Hedding Methodist Episcopal Church at S.E. Fairmount & 16th. in Philadelphia. In subsequent years they had three sons William, Albert Lafayette and George Robbin "Robert" Lawrence.
However on July 17th 1863 life would change for Edward and his family. Despite being married and with three young sons he was drafted into Co. B of the 71st Pa. Infantry. He joined the regiment at Morrisville Va. for the usual three year enlistment. We have no precise detail of where he served but it would be fair to assume it could be followed by noting the routes and engagements the 71st and 69th Pa. took part in.
On June 6th 1864 the 71st Pa were basically disbanded. Those soldiers who had not served the full three years were transferred to the 69th Pa. Thus Edward found himself in Co. K of the 69th. from this date.
Things did not always go to plan for Edward. It is known that at some stage Edward like quite a lot of other soldiers went AWOL. The first time he left he returned and not a lot would appear to have happened. Wise counsel by senior officers and hungry men and his position having a major input to their food chain no doubt called the punishment!.
However the second time he went AWOL the circumstances would appear to be that he applied in Nov 1864 for leave to attend family business back home after his father in law died. His request for leave went all the way up the chain of command to the division commander Major General John Gibbon who refused the request saying that there were too many men absent from the regiment. It is interesting to note that at the time of the refusal there were only 2 missing from a group of 169 and the two missing were in facts AWOL's. Gibbons was a career artillery officer noted as always doing "things by the book" so in all probability Edward's immediate superiors and regimental officers would have allowed his request. However I suppose with a Gibbons around they themselves had to "watch their backs".
Edward always the master of his own destiny decided he was going anyway. Not a good idea. This time they went looking for him and matters came to a head in Philadelphia where he was either found or perhaps he decided to give himself up. For his actions he was imprisoned in Wash D.C. on Feb. 4th. 1865 until May 23rd 1865. All's well that ends well and he was released by order of his regimental commander who appears to have had no problem with his behaviour in the first place and ordered his release back to the regiment. Edward remained with the regiment until they mustered out at Munsons Hill Va. 1st July 1865. No doubt they all parted as friends and went home well satisfied by Edwards vitualling skills.
Back home in Philadelphia a daughter Lillian was born to Edward and Mary Ann on Feb.1st. 1869. He was aged 38 amd Mary Ann 31.
Looking at the names in the companies of the 69th one sees a very large proportion of Irishmen the majority being from the northern counties of Derry, Tyrone and Donegal, a fiesty collection no doubt who would not think twice of composing a letter to Governor Curtin on the State of the regiment or how the war was going, what needed doing, who should be promoted, demoted etc etc. If one reads transcripts of some of these letters one can only be amazed by their ablility to express their thoughts and ideas. Capt. Charles McAnally's letters and reports are particularly interesting. Did Edward coming from a very different background find common ground with these men?. Most certainly. He was like so many of them his "own" man.
The fact that the butchering trade was in his blood goes without saying. It is noted in the IRS tax rolls that in April 1866 some time after the war Edward owned between 60 and 109 sheep while his brothers George and John each owned 8 head of cattle each. He was back at the trade he knew.
However around 1870-71 Edward's health would appear to have failed. He contracted T.B. and died Oct 16th 1872 at 2135 Wright St. (now Stewart St.) Philadelphia. He was aged just 42 and left a young family behind.
Edward was initially buried on the Odd Fellows cemetery Philadelphia along with his parents and later his wife Mary Ann who died in 1918. However when this cemetery was closed all remains were removed and reinterred in the Lawnview Cemetery Rockledge Mont. Co. Pa.
For additional information on the extended Lawrence family link via the icon below.
Charles Carroll Bombaugh was born in Harrisburg Dauphine Co. Pa. 18th Feb. 1828 the son of Aaron Bombaugh and either his first wife Julia Duncan or 2nd wife Mira Lloyd. The Bombaughs were descended from German stock as the name suggests and family settling in the Harrisburg area of Dauphine Co. Pa. Charles was well educated .
Aged 17 in 1845 he joined for initial additional education and military training at Capt Alden Partridge's Military College in Harrisburg. This college was operative in Harrisburg 1845-48.
After leaving Partridges College he then attended Harvard College (See left) and was in the B.A. Class of Harvard 1850 and graduated from there with honours degree. He then studied medicine and graduated from Jefferson Medical College Philadelphia 1853. He would be 25 years of age. We can only assume that the seven years between 1853 and the start of the Civil War in 1861 he practised medicine in the Philadelphia area.
Charles enrolled and mustered into the 69th as Surgeon in 19.8.1861 at Philadelphia with a surgeons ranking. He had joined for the usual three year period. Reading accounts of Charles Bombaughs service in the year he was active in the service is eye opening. Apart from recording some details of the horrific battlefield scenarions in which he was involved, operations, limb removals the death and butchery all around him Charles Bombaugh kept a diary of his experiences in the field, his observations of the areas they were encamped in and the horrific weather they had to fight in. Towards the end of his first year of service his health was failing rapidly and his ability to do his job failed.
He developed typho-malarial fever when the regiment were fighing in the James River area of Va. His health failing he had to resign from the regiment on the 27th Sept 1862. He wrote his resignation from his home in Philadelphia to Hon. E. M. Stanton the Secretary of War.
He had spent about a year on active service. However the Harvard records show that he after recovery was Act. Asst. Surgeon U. S. A. on duty at Mower Hosp. Chestnut Hill Philadelphia, and at Christian Street Hosp, Philadelphia, Pa., untill 4 April, 1864; then Newton University Hosp. Baltimore, Md. Resigned from there 31 May, 1865. This suggests to me in the statement "Act. Asst Surgeon U.S.A" now the U S A in this case must mean United States Army. So looks like he was employed by the Army at the three hospitals mentioned. It looks like that some time soon after 4th April 1864 he went to live in Baltimore where he spent a long period of, if not all of his life there though when he died his body was taken back to Harrisburg for burial in the family cemetery. His family noted in the 1880 Baltimore Census as living in he city. It looks like he tired of day to day medicine but took up a post of Medical Examiner for Insurance outlets as well as having interests in all sorts of aspects of life. For example:
He was editor of "The Baltimore Underwriter" for 33 years, Medical examiner for life insurance companies, Vice President American Academy of Science 1882-1894. Author of several books including "Gleanings for the Curious", "The Book of Blunders", "First Things", "Literature of Kissing", "Stratagems and Conspiracies to Defraud Insurance Companies". Charles died aged 78 on 24th May 1906 in Baltimore Md. He lived at a time at 836 Park Ave Baltimore. There is a signed painting of Charles by Louis P Dietrich dated 1895 owned by the Maryland Historical Society in Baltimore Md. Charles is buried in the Harrisburg Cemetery Harrisburg Dauphine Co. Pa. Charles was married to Mary Elizabeth Heisely. She died March 18th 1917 and also buried in the same cemetery. It is of interest to note that Maria Elizabeth Heisely Charles Bombaugh’s wife was the daughter of a Georg Jacob Heisely and Anna Maria Kurtz. The Heisely family were renown for their ability to manufacture clocks and mathematical instruments.
Here is the entry on Bombaugh courtesy of the Harvard Free Electronic Library Thomas Harrington Medical School History 1782-1905. Page 43.
1850. CHARLES CARROLL BOMBAUGH. A. M. t 1855. (M. D. Jefferson Med. Col., Pa., 1853.) Surgeon 2d Regt. Philadelphia Brig. 19 Aug., 1861. Surgeon 69th Penn. Vols. 29 Oct., 1861. Served near Chain Bridge, Va. ; Monccacy River, Md. ; at Winchester, Va., and in the Peninsular campaign ; after McClellan's retreat to the James River taken ill with typho-malarial fever and sent home 21 July, 1862. Resigned 2-j Sept., 1862. Act. Asst. Surgeon U. S. A. On duty at Mower Hosp., Chestnut Hill, and at Christian Street Hosp., Philadelphia, Pa., till 4 April, 1864; Newton University Hosp., Baltimore, Md. Resigned 31 May, 1865.
It is of interest to me to find out what happened the men of the 69th after the war ended in 1865. Did they all go home?. Did they perhaps stay on in the new post war army now forming up for service in the new terrotiries in the "West". Most of the men who had been in the army were still relatively young many in their mid 20's.
The officer class generally went back to professions they had been in prior to the war or had connections to families who had businesses that could find positions to employ them. This would not be the case for the general rank and file soldiers. They had to go back to what were in many cases poor jobs in the steel mills,labouring, wherever they could get emloyment.
However when researching from time to time marker or headstone images turn up from cemeteries in far flung places, to the "West" towards California and the Pacific coast of N. America. The great migration west had started and the railroad expansion changed things for ever. It would be expected that some of the newly "released" ex 69th men would head west. No doubt some did but finding out much about this group is difficult. In Francis McClarren I have been quite lucky in finding out at least a general picture of his life post 1865.
However to police the new territories and protect the emigrants going west there had to be a mobile force. This was the "cavalry" the mobile horse soldiers of the era. These regiments soon found their way into American folklore for their exploits in the new territories for both protecting the "folks going west" on the various trails and also those laying claim to cheap Indian lands. Also they kept those "pesky" Indians in line, a subject of much controversy even to this day. To do this they had to establish forts in various strategic locations.
These cavalry units had to enlist men from somewhere. There were few suitable men in the west and the army turned to the usual places, the states on the east coast where post war immigrants were flooding in. English speaking Europeans would certainly suit the bill especially those from the British Isles and we have to include the Irish in the mix. The officers in these new Cavalry units were in many cases ex Civil War high rankers and a lot of ex West Pointers.
Cavalry units already existed and many fought in the 1861-65 civil war though they do not figure too much in the history of the war. The 6th U.S. Cavalry in which Francis McClarren later served formed up in Sept 1861 and saw service in the Civil War. The 6th U.S Cavalry would go on to spend some 30 years policing the territory around Fort Whipple and S.W. of the Arizona Territory. The 6th Cavalry recruited primarily from Pennsylvania, Ohio and New York.
Let us look at Francis McClarrens life as a soldier. Born in Philadelphia he chose to join the 69th Pa Infantry. As now I do not know if he was of Irish-American stock or what made him chose this regiment. In any case he initially enlisted in Co. I of the 69th Pa at Philadelphia for three years on the 19th Aug 1861 and mustered in on the same day. Either his brother or cousin James McClarren enlisted on the same day. James was however wounded at the battle of Antietam and hospitalised but decided to desert until being captured and returned to the army only to be wounded at the battle of Spotsylvania. He did however miss the encounter at Gettysburg.
Francis would appear to have fought in all the engagements includind Gettysburg until his luck ran out at the engagement at the Jerusalem Plank Road Petersburg Va when he was captured 22nd June 1864. He spent two days in hospital at Richmond Va 22nd to 24th June 1864 whenvhe was shipped as a prisoner to the notorious prison at Andersonsville. His health like that of thousands of others failed but as one of the luckier ones ( he had chronic diahorrea) was shipped to Savannah Ga on Nov. 28th 1864. He was then moved to Camp Parole Md and exchanged on Nov 28th 1864. He would appear to have recovered somewhat in no doubt better surroundings either in hospital and at home but about two months later on 31st Jan 1865 was discharged from the army, probably not really fully recovered but of no further use to the army. In any case victory was in sight. His service with the 69th Pa was over. It was back to his original employment. He would be aged 25.
However for whatever reason Francis seems to have put his fighting days behind him and probably not realising just how lucky he was not to have been incarcerated for a long period in Andersonsville he decided that there would be excitement or an interesting life in a cavalry unit serving in the "West" and he enlisted in the 6th U.S. Cavalry at Philadelphia on Aug 3rd 1872. The Register of Enlistments of the United States Army show that he was enlisted by a Captain Whiteside. He gives his age as 29. Perhaps he may have been 32-33 but recruits were wanted! He is noted as being 5ft 6ins, grey eyes, fair comlexion, dark hair. It also noted that he was a printer by trade. He Was now a cavalry man and would soon go west.
In 1872 the 6th Cavalry was based at Fort Whipple in what was then the Arizona Territory. Fort Whipple (Prescott) N.W. of Phoenix. At this stage the 6th Cavalry were primarily patrolling and policing the extended area around Whipple. Duties would no doubt include policing the Indian reservations, dealing with them rather harshly and ensuring that they did not get too involved in moonshine manufacturing the infamous "tizwin" moonshine. All the things movies fans can relate to from the old movies post WW2. Co-incidentally in 1872 the year that McClarren went west the old fort was being up graded. No doubt McClarren had a fairly active life as a cavalry man. His five years enlistment ended in June 9th 1877 when he was discharged by Standing Order 53. He is noted as having reached sergeant rank and was given an "Excellent" character reference. He was now aged 37 still a relatively young man
It would appear that McClarren remained on in Arizona as he applied for a pension on 8th Aug 1890. He was now aged 50. However as to when he went back home to Philadelphia I do not know. What he did in Arizona is unknown but many ex soldiers of good character got jobs servicing the fort eg running shops,doing maintainance etc. I feel this what he did. It would appear that he never married. From his application for a pension from Arizona in Aug 1890 aged approx 50 to his death in Philadelphia in 1907 some 17 yeras I have no informatio, What we do know is that he died in Philadelphia March 13th 1907 as reported in the P.I. March 14th 1907. He was buried in the Holy Cross Cemetery.
When James McClelland arrived at Fort Whipple in 1872 he would have found that the fort was being up graded from the old "stockade" type of fort to a more modern layout on slightly higher ground with much better facilities and buildings. One report states that the quarters there "were excellent in all respects". In completion of the rebuild by 1875 the fort had taken on the configuration it would have for the next 30 years. Communications were improving as the new telegraph lines were installed (more Indian attention and memories of the old black and white movies!!). In any case military telegraph lines had been established between Fort Whipple and San Diego, Yuma, Phoenix and Tucson. However travel overland was still slow and dangerous. One noted traveller a Martha Summerhayes after a journey of some seven weeks from San Francisco enroute Fort Apache stayed three nights at Fort Whipple and found it to be "a gay and hospitable post".
In the fall of 1874 the new Commander of Fort Whipple arrived with his young wife Fannie who was an aspiring painter, actress and musican. Nearly ever week there were social events for the officers and ladies of the fort. The weekly dance or "hop" as known by the West Pointers became so well liked that the "local" towns folk an shock-horror some of the enlisted men were allowed to attend. One assumes that McClarren must have behaved himself on these occassions as he left the fort with an excellent character report but alas it would appear no wife. Fannie took it all a stage further and established The Fort Whipple Theatre Company and produced such epics with titles such as "Dead Shot" and "Regular Fix". Hardly names that would be allowed now in the Military!
Overall I would be of the opinion that McClarren enjoyed his time there and I feel he stayed on for many years until he got the urge to go back east and enjoy the joys of the east coast winters!
Francis had what would be a colourful life. He had fought with the 69th survived Gattysburg, survived the engagement at Petersburg though captured, survived Andersonsville and no doubt numerous skirmishes with the Apache Indians in Arizona. Overall he had a lucky and longish life.